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Research: Chicago Referencing Style: Chicago style with endnotes

Chicago is a referencing system that uses a noting technique. This guide is intended for IB Diploma Programme students.


If you use the endnote system, you list all the relevant information about a source of information at the end of your text.

When you use a source of information, you signify this in your text by using a number, starting with 1, at the end of the sentence (or clause of a longer sentence) in which the source of information is used. 

The number is placed by superscript, e.g. ¹. (There should be a footnoting option in the Word document you're using.)

When you quote someone, the note number appears immediately after the quote, e.g. "the solution thickened and turned purple."¹

If you use a source consecutively, you need to use separate numbers. When this happens, you can use the abbreviation '"Ibid", which simply means that it is the same source in the note details, i.e. in the bibliography or reference list.

The endnotes are listed in number order.

When you use a source more than once, you do not need to give the same details twice, just a shortened form will suffice. An online citation generator (e.g. EasyBib or Zotero) may be able to help with this. However, in planning and drafting of your work, you may wish to keep the full details with each numbered note.  

In the endnote, the numbers use regular numbers, followed by a period or full-stop, e.g. 1. In other words, in the endnote, you do not use numbers in superscript. 

In the endnote, an entry should appear in a similar format to this example (for a book):

   1. Stella Cottrell, The Study Skills Handbook (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008), 45. 

In this example, the author's name is given first, followed by the title (in italics), followed by the place of publication, publisher, and date of publication (in parenthesis), with the page number given last. 

This is another example, this time of a website:

   2. National Environment Agency, "PSI Readings", Singapore Government, (accessed March 26, 2014), 

"Accessed" refers to the date you looked at or used the website. The URL is listed last. A URL by itself is not an acceptable means of citation in the Chicago style.

For an interview you carry out, the note details should be similar to this example:

   3. Martin Chen (Managing Director, InfoSpace Ltd.), in discussion with the author, May 2013.

The person you interviewed appears first, then her/his title or work function. The author is you. The month and year refers to the time when you carried out the interview. If you make further references to the interview, you do not need to include all the details, just a shortened form, e.g.

   7. Chen, interview.

The number refers to the next time you use the interview, followed by the interviewee's family name, then the type of information it is. 


What to check before submitting your work

The notes in your text must match the numbered entries in your endnote list.

Note numbers must run consecutively, i.e. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and so on, and not 1,3,5,4,7, etc. (You cannot re-use a number later in your text. If you refer to a source of information you used earlier, you still need to use the next available (i.e. sequential) number to record your use of the source of information at that point in your text.)

If you use a bibliography as well as an endnote, the endnote is placed before the bibliography. Remember that the endnotes are listed in number order, whilst a bibliography is listed in alphabetical order, according to the author's last or family name. See also the information in the last tab of this Libguide.