When you need to reference pieces of visual art, you will find that art works have different properties from print or digital (text) sources, however there are some common elements - artist (author), title, and date of creation (publication). Differences though include medium of the art work and collection or museum where the art work may be viewed. The information below will be helpful for IB Diploma Programme Visual Art students who are undertaking an Extended Essay or other research element as part of the DP.
For these works of art, you need as many of the following elements as are relevant or available:
If you're citing a reproduction of an art work, you need to add the publication or website where the reproduction was found.
Here are some examples to show what the punctuation or reference format looks like:
Moche portrait vessel. c.550. Ceramic. Museo Rafael Larco Herrera, Lima, Peru.
Marawili, Mundukul. Fish trap at Baraltja. 1947. Drawing, lumber crayon on butchers paper. RM & CH Berndt Collection, Berndt Museum of Anthropology, Museum of Western Australia, Perth.
Rembrandt Harmensz van Rijn. The night watch. 1642. Oil on canvas. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam.
Struth, Thomas. The restorers at San Lorenzo Maggiore, Naples. 1988. Photograph. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
In the first example, a name of a potter is not available, so the item starts with the title (titles should always be given in italic type). c. stands for circa, because the exact date cannot be determined. If you cannot find a date when a work of art was created, use N.d. instead - this stands for 'no date'.
When referencing works of art in film or video format, there are some different aspects to record.
Here are some examples:
Chaplin, Charles, dir. Modern Times. Perf. Chaplin and Paulette Goddard. United Artists, 1936. Film.
Viola, Bill. The Passing. 1991. Film. YouTube, 2013. Accessed 10 December 2014. <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vUUqOYIvd7s>
In the first example, the focus is on Chaplin, so his name begins the entry. 'dir.' is a shortened form of the word 'director', 'perf.' is a shortened form of the word 'performer'.
In the second example, the focus is on the video artist Bill Viola, who created the video in 1991. It was seen on an online video channel, where it was uploaded in 2013 (this information, together with the licence for making the video available on YouTube is given directly below the video screen). Although not a requirement of MLA, the IB requires students to provide a date of access and a url.