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Olaudah Equiano (c.1745-1797)
Olaudah Equiano also known as Gustavus Vassa, was a prominent African involved in the British movement for the abolition of the slave trade. He was enslaved as a child in his home town of Essaka in what is now south eastern Nigeria, shipped to the West Indies, moved to England, and successfully purchased his freedom. Throughout his life Equiano worked as an author, a seafarer, merchant, hairdresser, and explorer in South and Central America, the Caribbean, and the Arctic, the American colonies, and the United Kingdom, where he settled by 1792. His autobiography, The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, depicts the horrors of slavery and influenced the enactment of the Slave Trade Act of 1807.
The Abolition Project
Olaudah Equiano, was a former enslaved African, seaman and merchant who wrote an autobiography depicting the horrors of slavery and lobbied Parliament for its abolition.
Apart from the uncertainty about his early years, everything Equiano describes in his extraordinary autobiography can be verified.
Olaudah Equiano and his sister were among countless thousands of children wrenched from their African homeland to suffer the inhumn and degrading brutality of slavery. Through hard work and honesty he was able to purchase his freedom and began working with the Abolitionists to end the slave trade.
Toussaint L'Ouventure (1743–1803)
François-Dominique Toussaint Louverture, also Toussaint L'Ouverture, Toussaint-Louverture, Toussaint Bréda, nicknamed The Black Napoleon , was the leader of the Haitian Revolution. His military genius and political acumen transformed an entire society of slaves into the independent state of Haiti. The success of the Haitian Revolution shook the institution of slavery throughout the New World.
Although he never set foot in Britain or the British West Indies, Toussaint L'Ouverture had a large, albeit indirect, influence on the end of slavery in the British Empire. L'Ouverture was the leader of history's largest slave revolt - a dozen years of bloody, brutal fighting, starting in 1791, that transformed the French colony of St Domingue into the independent country of Haiti.
Library book - Open the door to Liberty!
Chronicles Toussaint L'Ouverture's efforts to lead the African slaves of St. Domingue, now the island of Haiti, to freedom.
Égalité for All - Movie
Égalité for All: Toussaint Louverture and the Haitian Revolution explores this history through music, voodoo ritual, powerful re-creations, and insightful writers and historians.
Ignatius Sancho (c.1729–1780)
Ignatius Sancho was a composer, actor, and writer. He is the first known Black Briton to vote in a British election. He gained fame in his time as "the extraordinary Negro", and to 18th-century British abolitionists he became a symbol of the humanity of Africans and immorality of the slave trade. The Letters of the Late Ignatius Sancho, an African, edited and published two years after his death, is one of the earliest accounts of African slavery written in English by a former slave of Spanish and English families.
The Abolition Project
Sancho was born in 1729 on a slave ship and spent the first two years of his life enslaved in Grenada. His mother died when he was very young and his father killed himself, rather than become enslaved.
The music of Sancho
This site has links to MP3's of the music of Ignatius Sancho.
Thomas Clarkson, spent his long adult life working to abolish the Transatlantic Slave Trade and slavery itself.
William Wilberforce was an English politician who became the voice of the abolition movement in Parliament.
Harriet Tubman (1820-1913)
Harriet Tubman (born Araminta Harriet Ross; ) was an African-American abolitionist, humanitarian, and Union spy during the American Civil War. Born into slavery, Tubman escaped and subsequently made more than nineteen missions to rescue more than 300 slaves using the network of antislavery activists and safe houses known as the Underground Railroad. She later helped John Brown recruit men for his raid on Harpers Ferry, and in the post-war era struggled for women's suffrage.
Library book - Minty : a story of young Harriet Tubman
As a young slave, nicknamed "Minty," Harriet Tubman was a feisty and stubborn girl with a dream of escape, and whose rebellious spirit often got her into trouble. Pinkney's expressive illustrations bring every emotion to brilliant life-from troubled sorrow to spirited hope for freedom.
PBS resource bank
Harriet Tubman is perhaps the most well-known of all the Underground Railroad's "conductors." During a ten-year span she made 19 trips into the South and escorted over 300 slaves to freedom. And, as she once proudly pointed out to Frederick Douglass, in all of her journeys she "never lost a single passenger."
Born a slave on Maryland’s eastern shore, she endured the harsh existence of a field hand, including brutal beatings. In 1849 she fled slavery, leaving her husband and family behind in order to escape.
Abby Kelley Foster (1811-1887)
Abby Kelley Foster was an American abolitionist and radical social reformer active from the 1830s to 1870s. She became a fundraiser, lecturer and committee organizer for the influential American Anti-Slavery Society, where she worked closely with William Lloyd Garrison and other radicals. She married fellow abolitionist and lecturer Stephen Symonds Foster, and they both worked for equal rights for women.
Her almost ceaseless lecturing took her as far west as Indiana and Michigan, and her travels were marked not only by personal abuse but also, more immediately, by frequent hardship
National Women's History Museum
Abby Kelley Foster was a fairly average, middle class Massachusetts woman whose special contribution was her skill to reach out to and change ordinary people in small villages and towns. She felt her true calling was converting people who were not yet convinced that slavery was evil.
Fredrick Douglass (c.1818–1895)
Abraham Lincoln's position on slavery was one of the central issues in American history. Lincoln often expressed moral opposition to slavery in public and private.
NPS - Lincoln on Slavery
Abraham Lincoln is often referred to as "The Great Emancipator" and yet, he did not publicly call for emancipation throughout his entire life...
consider some surprising facts about Lincoln's views on slavery, and the complex process that led him to issue the document he later called "the central act of my administration, and the greatest event of the 19th century...
EASYBIB: Bibliography for Grade 8 Humanities
The Underground Railroad was a network of secret routes and safe houses used by 19th-century slaves of African descent in the United States to escape to free states and Canada with the aid of abolitionists and allies who were sympathetic to their cause.
National Geographic game
You are a slave. You belong to a farmer who owns a tobacco plantation on the eastern shore of Maryland. Six long days a week you tend his field. But not for much longer . . .
What will you do? Make your choices well as you embark on your journey to freedom.
A vast network of people who helped fugitive slaves escape to the North and to Canada, was not run by any single organization or person. Rather, it consisted of many individuals -- many whites but predominently black -- who knew only of the local efforts to aid fugitives and not of the overall operation. Still, it effectively moved hundreds of slaves northward each year -- according to one estimate, the South lost 100,000 slaves between 1810 and 1850.
Fleeing to freedom on the Underground Railroad : the courageous slaves, agents, and conductors
An account of how the Underground Railroad helped slaves to escape to freedom before the Civil War.
Slave Trade Act 1807
The Slave Trade Act was an Act of Parliament made in the United Kingdom passed on 25 March 1807, with the title of "An Act for the Abolition of the Slave Trade". The act abolished the slave trade in the British Empire, but not slavery itself. Many of the Bill's supporters thought the Act would lead to the death of slavery. It was not until 26 years later that slavery itself was actually abolished.
NY Public Libary
The 1807 act was a comprehensive attempt to close the slave trade. By passing the law in March, Congress gave all slave traders nine months to close down their operations in the United States.
The Abolition Project
The members of the Society for the Abolition of the Slave Trade decided to concentrate on a campaign to persuade Parliament to prohibit the trading in slaves, for tactical reasons. They felt they were more likely to succeed, than if they demanded the abolition of slavery itself throughout the empire.
They also believed that, if the trade was ceased, slavery would eventually wither away.
Slavery in Ancient times
It was around 4000 BCE that a people called Sumerians moved into Mesopotamia, perhaps from around the Caspian Sea.
Slaves were very important to the Romans. Without slaves, the wealthy of Rome would not have been able to lead the lifestyles that they wanted to.
least as early as the 600s BCE, societies around the Black Sea sold slaves to Greek traders in exchange for luxury goods such as wine and clothing. Many of theses slaves came from Asia Minor, Colchis (today Georgia) and Thrace (today Bulgaria and northeastern Greece). Frequent warring in these areas had created an abundant slave supply, and children sold by desperate parents were part of the supply.
United World College of Southeast Asia (UWCSEA): Dover Campus: 1207 Dover Road, Singapore 139654 / East Campus: 1 Tampines Street 73, Singapore 528704