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How-to: Research Help: Citation styles for IB Diploma Subjects

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IB Diploma subjects: Referencing styles required on the EAST campus

The Author-Page style of in-text referencing (e.g., MLA) is the default for all students in all subjects, however, for the IB Diploma programme, some departments choose a different style -- whether in-text Author-Date-Page (e.g., APA) or bottom-of-the-page Footnotes (e.g., Chicago) -- as indicated below.

MLA (Modern Language Association) -- this is the Author-Page style of inline citations
All Languages A & B, Economics, Design Technology, Film Studies, Visual Arts, Theatre, Music, World Studies
APA (American Psychological Association) -- this is the Author-Date-Page style of inline citations 
Psychology, Environmental Systems & Society, Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Geography, Mathematics, Computer Science
Chicago -- this is the style that uses footnotes at the bottom of the page

Summary Comparison of Referencing Styles

AUTHOR Style, e.g., MLA - Modern Language Association

This is the style with "author" -- and "page number" (if relevant).

Scentists have proved that mice can sing (Mice Research).  But others disagree (Smith, Brown, and Kaser 135).

AUTHOR-DATE Style, e.g., APA - American Psychological Association

This is the style with "author" and "date" -- and "page number" (if relevant).  For example:

Scientists have proved that mice can sing ("Mice Research," 2012).  But others disagree (Smith, Brown, & Kaser, 2013, p. 135).

FOOTNOTES Style, e.g., the Chicago Manual of Style (CMS)

This is the "foonotes" style.

Scientists have proved that mice can sing.1  But others disgree.2
1.  "Mice Research," Scientists United, 2012, accessed September 1, 2014,
2.  Anne Smith, Nancy Brown, and Kate Kaser, Research on Mice and Music (London: Oxford University Press, 2013), 135.

NOTE:  All three of the styles above would still have a "Works Cited" or "Bibliography" section at the end of the paper, where all the sources are listed alphabetically, in one list.